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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Johann LEPLAT (2012)

29 octobre 2012 - INRA Dijon

Sapotrophical development of fusarium graminearum : respective role of different natural habitats of the fungus in the wheat infectious process in Burgundy ; research for predicting indicators of fusarisosis risk

Doctoral school : Sciences terre (E2S)

Director : Christian STEINBERG - UMR Agroécologie - Université de Bourgogne - DIJON

Summary :

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), mainly caused by the fungal species Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most important disease altering wheat crops in Burgundy. Moreover the plant-pathogen interaction leads to the production of mycotoxins potentially toxic for humans and animals.The only alternative to date to prevent the development of the disease is to control the saprotrophic development of F. graminearum in its natural habitat, i.e. weeds, soil and crops residues. Due to the trend of reduced tillage, special attention should be paid to the role of crop residues in the survival and development of F. graminearum.Two approaches were chosen to better understand the saprotrophic development of F. graminearum and its consequences towards FHB. i) The first through a field experiment in the Burgundian pedoclimatic context aimed at defining the relative importance of the different sources of inoculum in the development of FHB and the accumulation of mycotoxins in grains. The field experiment was also to determine whether early indicators of disease development on ears and accumulation of mycotoxins could be identified. ii) The second, through test microcosms, was to follow the development of F. graminearum in the soil and crop residues.This work highlighted the importance of crop residues management in the development of FHB and gave new understanding about the survival of the fungus on these residues. Improve the biological decomposition of crop residues at the soil surface or/and using suppressive intermediate crops could be the next prospective to investigate to limit the soil inoculum potential of saprotrophic F. graminearum